Maramis, M. M., Pantouw, J. G., & Lesmana, C. (2021). Depression screening in Surabaya Indonesia: Urgent need for better mental health care for high-risk communities and suicide prevention for men. The International journal of social psychiatry, 67(5), 421–431. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764020957359
Objectives: Despite its high prevalence and considerable burden, depression is not handled with the required urgency in Indonesia. Existing data from the government does not specifically note its prevalence and symptoms manifestation. This study screened depression in Surabaya, where the prevalence of mood disorder was reported to be higher than the national prevalence, in order to identify where action is most needed.
Methods: Cross-sectional study with non-random sampling. Participants consisted of samples from general population categorised as non-high-risk group, and prisoners, sex workers and drug users categorised as high-risk group. Depression screening was done using MINI-ICD10 self-rated depression questionnaire. Correlation between screening results and demographic data was analysed using chi-square test.
Results: Positive depression screening was significantly associated with grouping and educational background. High-risk group and participants with lower education background had significantly higher number of positive screening. Significantly higher proportion of participants in the high-risk group experience eight of the ten depression symptoms regardless of screening results. Higher proportion of depression positive male participants experienced suicidal/self-harm symptom.
Limitations: This study used non-random sampling method, therefore the results may not fully represent the general population. The screening instrument used did not account for depression and symptoms severity.
Conclusion: High-risk group with low educational background is in most urgent need of mental health help, and suicide prevention strategy is most needed for men.